Brainstorm Groups

   In this set of materials, the reading passage mainly focuses on the brainstorm groups are not effective for companies while the listening material casts doubt the notion stressed in the reading passage.

  • Imaginative, valuable and creative solutions

   First of all, the reading argues that although intensive using of brainstorm groups, their positive performance is not proved by researches. On the other hand, the listening passage reports that it can be more effective if design well. Despite solo workers produce more idea, quality of idea is more important than quantity. Brainstorm groups are more imaginative, more valuable and find more creative solutions. This refutes the first claim of reading passage.

  • Team make it better

   In the second place, the reading passage states that brain storm groups are also less creative. According to researches, solo brainstorms generated twice as many original and valuable ideas. On the other hand, the listening passage reports that no matter how many idea they found, important point is finding the best idea. Team make it better. They generate idea and evaluate idea with discussing on it. This refutes second claim of reading passage.

  • Conflicts help the group

   Last but not least, the reading passage contends that the lack of opposite ideas is cause of conformity in many groups. On the other hand, the listening passage reports that a group should include members who have different knowledge and perspectives. Conflicts help the group to generate opinions and original ideas. It can be possible with a careful design. This refutes the last claim of reading passage.

Traditional Voting System vs Computerized Voting System

   In this set of materials, the reading passage mainly focuses on traditional voting system is should be replaced by computerized voting system because it could be more efficient and reliable, while the listening material casts doubt notions stressed in the reading passage.

  • Voting accidentally

   First of all, the reading argues that one of the so crucial problem about traditional voting method is that people can vote accidentally for the wrong candidate lots of time. On the other hand, the listening passage reports that it may be true but computerized voting system will not be better. Some people can use it easily and it is OK for them but what about people who hastroubles to use computer very well. They can easily vote for wrong candidate. It can be problem. This refutes the first claim of reading passage.

  • Human based mistakes

   In the second place, the reading states that another vital problem about the traditional method is that a lot of people works for counting votes and they can do mistakes. Contrary to these claims, the listening reports that it is true that human can do mistakes but it is not true computer never does because computers are also products of humans. In addition, if a computer system makes a mistake, it could be more serious than humans does. Thousands of votes can remove. It is not a physical error and not replaceable. This refutes the second claim of reading the passage.

  • Meaningless software scares

   Last but not least, the reading contends that some people say it is risky to implement a software to for this kind of crucial job but we are already using this kind of applications in our daily life. On the other hand, the listening passage reports that we are using it in the banks, for example, but it has improved day by day and it proved it is reliable. In addition to this, we use it just 1 times in every 2 years. It is hard to believe that it is sufficient  to determine all votes without errors. This refutes the last claim of the reading passage.

Ups and Downs of School Vacations

   In this set of materials, the reading passage mainly focuses that vacation during school year can be beneficial for education for students while the listening material casts doubt notions stressed in the reading passage.

  • Gain new perspectives

   First of all, the reading passage argues that it is so crucial for students that visiting new places and see different cultures. On the other hand, the listening reports that they need to catch up missing subjects and study harder for it later. Its disadvantages overweigh its advantages. This refutes the first claim of reading passage.

  • Paying more attention on lectures

   In the second place, the reading passage states that student’s attention toward lectures can increase in this way. On the other hand, the listening passage reports that this relaxing can be dangerous. They cannot adapt school works easily. They may be bored in the school and their attention may reduce. They can even disturb other students in this period. This refutes the second claim of reading passage.

  • Good for teachers

   Last but not least, the reading passage contends that they can help teachers in multiple ways after traveling. On the other hand, the listening passage reports that teachers have a yearly lesson plan. They prepare it day by day and they know what to do intoday before the class. If a few students try to express their experiments about their traveling, they will probably spend a lot of time. It is also not good for others because they have lesser time in the class. It is not fair. This refutes the last claim of reading passage.

Why Charitable Giving Has Declined?

   In this set of materials, reading mainly focuses that charitable giving has declined inthe last years and it will probably continue while listening material casts doubt notions stressed in the reading passage.

  • Goverment supports

   First of all, the reading argues that government helps people and people do not need to support. On the other hand, the listening reports that amount of retired and elderly people increases day by day. They need to more health care services and government cannot afford it. So, charity need will increase and USA public will help people. This refutes the first claim of reading passage.

  • High Charity Company Expenses

   In the second place, the reading states that charity companies are using money for their own expenses and people do not want to pay for it. On the other hand, the listening reports that people wasangry about bad management on charity companies. Public forces companies to do some reforms. They reduces expenses and this encourages people to help people again. This refutes the second claim of reading passage.

  • Bad Management of Charity Companies

   Last but not least, the reading contends that the people see some poses in the charity organizations and this discourages  people to give charity. On the other hand, the listening reports that reaction of public evolved against this poses. People did not want to donate for a while but it makes people more sensitive about whether it is a real charity or not. For example, they refuse to give money from phone. People ask documentation to proof PROVE. They learn how to be careful against cheating. In other words, they have a guard anymore. They will continue without stopping because charity is so crucial for people. This refutes the last claim of the reading material.


A Greek Myth: Burning Mirror as a Weapon

  • Burning mirror as a myth

In these set of materials, the reading passage mainly focuses that Greeks did not use a burning mirror as a weapon and it is just a myth, while the listening material casts doubt notions stressed in the reading passage.

  • Greeks had advanced technology

First of all, the reading passage states that Greeks did not have advanced technology to build burning mirror. On the other hand, the listening passage reports that experiments showed that they were able to determine parabolic curvature. They had great math knowledge to calculate all working processes of burning mirror. This refutes the first claim of the reading passage.

  • Was it efficient as a gun?

In the second place, the reading argues that it takes long time set on fire and enemies moves in this time. However, the gun is not efficient. On the other hand, the listening passage reports that it is true that it takes ten minutes, if they built it from wood but they could do it from another material. For example, if they built it from stick pitch it moves in seconds. It could be quick enough. It also could be efficient in this situation. This refutes the second claim of the reading passage.

  • No Difference with Flaming Arrows

Last but not least, the reading contends that Greeks had already a similar weapon which called as flaming arrows and they did not need another one. On the other hand, the listening passage reports that these were not familiar. They calculated distance with mirror. When they saw enemies in the mirror, they started to fire and it was surprising for enemies. It was more efficient. This refutes the last claim of the reading passage.